With the pruning for fruiting all dead and broken branches and twigs are cut and burnt, and the dead trees are uprooted. Removed are the nests of the brown-tail, the white fruit moth, the egg rings of the lackey moth, and the mummified fruits are harvested and burned.
Soil tillage in March contributes to the destruction or deterioration of the conditions for the development of the apple sawfly larvae, the larvae and pupae of leaf-mining moths, the producers of the scab disease, brown rot and other diseases.
Winter spraying in the second half of march with Acarzine 3% or R3 oil – 3% for the extermination of the scale insect larvae and the eggs of the acari insects, aphids, geometer moths and others.
Pre-flowering spraying – takes place from the mouse ear phase until the flower color stars to show, from the end of March till the middle of April. It’s aimed against the main diseases and pests.
Scab disease and powdery mildew – spray one of the following fungicides: Punch 40EK – 0.0075%, Sistan 24 EK – 0.03%, Vektra 10 EK – 0.03%, Flint Max – 20g/haa.
Only against scab disease – Funguran ON 50 VP – 0.15%, Champion VP – 0.15%, Silit 40 SK – 0.15%, Ditan M 45 – 200 g/haa and etc.
Only against powdery mildew – Topsin M 70 VP – 0.15%, Baifidan 250 EK – 0.01%, Cumulus – 0.9% and others.
Insects – leaf grazing insects, weevils, apple sawfly, aphids, scale insects, etc. Spray with Reldan 50 EK – 0.12%, Nurele D – 0.06%, Dursban 4 E – 0.15%, Alsistin – 0.05%, Detsis 2.5 EK – 0.04%.
Acari insects – European red mite – spray with Envidor 240 SC – 40 ml/ha, Omit 57 Е – 100 ml/ha.
The fungicides, insecticides and acaricides can be mixed for simultaneous combat against pests, but the spraying needs to be done immediately after the mixing.
Performs after the shedding of the small flower leaves against scab and powdery mildew. Spray withс : Topsin М 70 VP – 0,15%, Punch 40 ЕC – 0,175%, Flint max – 20 gr/ha, Sistan 12 Е – 0,06%, Vectra10 SC – 0,03%. Excise the branches with signs of powdery mildew disease, and if leaf chewing caterpillars, Winter Moth and leaf-rollers in sight add to the fungicidal solution Dipel 2 Х – 0,1%.
AFTER FLOWERING SPRAYING
First after flowering spraying – held at the end of April – the first ten days of May, against scab, powdery mildew, brown rot, apple sawfly, leaf miners, leaf chewing caterpillars, Winter Moth, aphids, apple aphid and others.
– against deaseases spray with Punch 40 ЕK – 0,0075%, Vektra 10 SC – 0,03%, Sistan 24 ЕC – 0,03%, Topsin М 70 VP – 0,15%, Silit 40 SK – 0,15%, Flint max – 20 gr/ha and others.
– against insect pest spray with Alsistine 25 VP– 0,05%, Nurelle D– 0,075%, Mospilan 20 SP – 0,0125%, Gazel – 15 gr/ha, Reldan 40 ЕC – 120 ml/ha, Dursban 4Е – 150 ml/ha.
Excise the branches with signs of powdery mildew disease .
Second after flowering spraying – held in mid-May against scab, powdery mildew, leaf miners, leaf-rollers, leaf chewing caterpillars, winter moth and other pests with one of the mentioned in the first after flowering spraying insecticides and fungicides.
Third after flowering spraying – held during the second half of May, mainly against scab and first generation codling moth larvae.
– against scab spray with Rubigan 12 ЕC – 0,06%, Punch 40 ЕC – 0,0075%, Sistan 12 Е – 0,06%, Vectra 10 SC – 0,03%, Topsin М 70 VP – 0,15%, Folikur 250 EV– 0,04%, Shavit 72 DVG – 0,2%, Silit 40 SK – 0,16%.
– against codling moth spray with с Reldan 40 ЕК – 0,12%, Nurelle D – 0,06%, Dursban 4 Е – 0,2%, Alsistin 25 VP – 0,05%, Dimilin 480 SC – 0,04%, Supersekt 10 EK – 30 ml/ha.
Fourth after flowering spraying – Held during the first ten days of June, mainly against scab, codling moth larvae and against the first generation of californian shield aphid with insecticides and fungicides mentioned in the third after flowering spraying.
Fifth and sixth spraying – held against codling moth, californian shield aphid and against scab with the already indicated for these pests pesticides. The fifth spraying is carried out at the beginning of the second half of June, and the sixth – in the third ten days of the month. The sixth spraying is last one – against scab and first generation codling moth. Only in highly susceptible varieties and rainfalls may be carried out another 1-2 sprayings against scab. In the fifth and sixth spraying against scab can be used Flint max – 20 gr/ha, Ditan М 45 – 200 gr/ha, Punch – 0,005%, Sistan 12 Е – 0,045%, Rubigan 12 ЕК – 0,045%. The mentioned insecticides are toxic and against leaf-rollers, leaf chewing and other insects.
In July and August develops the bulk of the population of the californian shield aphid. Against apples harm are doing also leaf-rollers, leaf miners, crust eating insects. Also there are conditions for mass reproducing of the red mite. Against these pests are held 4-5 more sprays, mainly against apple moth.
Seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth and eleventh sprayings are held from mid-July to late August – early September.
– seventh – to mid-July.
– eighth – third ten days of July.
– ninth – the first ten days of August.
– tenth – second ten days of August.
– eleventh – third ten days of August – beginning of September
In the seventh – tenth spraying needs to be used one of the insecticides, listed in third after flowering spraying, and in eleventh – an insecticide with a shorter quarantine duration – Reldan 40 ЕC, Mospilan 20 SP, Gazel. In July, when starts the mass reproduction of the red mite, to the used insecticide needs to be added one of the following acaricides – Ortus 5 SK – 0,05%, Omit 57 Е – 0,1%, Envidor 240 СК – 40 ml/ha .
After harvesting the fruit and the dropping of 2/3 of the leaves spray with Karambid – 5-7%, and the soil must be tilled.
SPRAYING FOR PROTECTION AGAINST DISEASE NEEDS TO BE ADMINISTERED AT THE START OF THE PLANT INFECTIONS, AND AGAINST PEST –UPON REACHING DENSITY KNOWN AS THRESHOLD ECONOMIC HARM.
- Apple worm – 2-3% damaged fruits during the harvest е.
- Horse-chestnut leaf miner – 3-4 eggs or 3-4 mines on leaf of up to 3 mm.
- Apple mussel scale – during the second part of April – 15-20 larvae on branch with length of 1 m, and in July and August 3-5% fruits with green lice.
- Apple sawfly – 3-4 sawfly’s on one 8-10 years old three or 4-6% damaged fruits.
- Moth – 2-3 eggs on branch with length 1m, 6-8 caterpillars on 100 flower clusters.
- Vine leaf-roller – 8-10 caterpillars on 100 blossoms, 8-10% damaged fruits during August.
- Patch shines aphid – 15-20 eggs on a branch with length of 1m, if 10-15% of the wines, have aphids.
- Hairy beetle(Epicometis hirta) – 8-10 beetles on 100 blossoms.
- Red mite – 1000-1200 eggs on branch with length of 1 m, till the end of May– 4-6 moving mites on leaf, from late May to late August – 8-12 moving mites on leaf.
The thresholds of economic harm are approximate and depend on the expected crops, used detergents and other conditions.
The terms of spraying comply with the phenological development of the pests in Bulgaria.
– Casoron 6,7 G – 8-10 kg/ha against annual and perennial cereal and broadleaf weeds, introduced early spring outside the vegetation of the culture.
– Stomp 330 EK – 600 ml/ha against annual cereal and some broadleaf weeds, introduced early spring after the first tillage.
– Basta 15 SL – 600 ml/ha against annual and perennial cereal and broadleaf weeds, introduced in the early vegetation of the weeds.
– Glifozat S 360 – 400-1200 ml/ha against annual and perennial cereal and broadleaf weeds, is imported into budding phase of deciduous and ear formation of the crop.
– Raundup – 400-1200 ml/ha against annual and perennial cereal and broadleaf weeds, is introduced into budding phase of deciduous and ear formation of the crop